1. Academic goals and social goals
Table 1 on pp100
The academic goals means the students want to achieve academic goals in their academic situations. It includes mastery goal, performance goal, and work avoidance goal. The mastery goal means students want to display their understanding, academic competence, and knowledge they get based on their own target. The performance goal means students want to beat other students and display their abilities and excellence in the learning process through getting high marks or some rewards. The work avoidance goal means students are not interested in achieving target, so they minimize their effort and avoid any academic situation.
The social goals mean students want to achieve their social goals in their academic situations. It includes social affiliation goal, social approval goal, social responsibility goal, social status goal, and social concern goal. The social affiliation goal means students motivate to learn well, because they want to participate into some groups and build relationships with other students. The social approval goal means students wants to get approvals from teachers, parents, and peers. The social responsibility goal means students think they have duty to study well and help other students. The social status goal means students want to attain social position in the school and their future lives. The social concern goal means students want to give their aid to other persons who need help in their learning or lives.
2. Behavioral components of students’ goals
Table 2 on pp101-102
The behavioral components of students’ goals referred to a range of concrete actions associated with each goal. The mastery goal is that students regulate their effort, behavior and time to finish their homework or knowledge learning, no matter there is high marks or rewards. The performance goal is that students study hard to get exceptional grade or high marks. The work avoidance goal is that students pay for little effort and seek help when they meet difficulties.
The social affiliation goal is that students like to work with other students so as to keep their cooperation. The social approval goal is that students are willing to attract their teacher and parents’ attention. The social responsibility goal is that students do some jobs or pay their effort to make a certain positive and good learning environment. The social status goal is that students work hard in the school in order to get good future. The social concern goal is that students want to study well and then to help others.
3. Affective components of students’ goals
Table 3 on pp103-104
The affective components of students’ goals refer to a range of feelings and emotions associated with each goal. The mastery goal is that students like to promote their academic approaches and satisfice their achievements. The performance goal is that the affective response to manage their work and assignment. The work avoidance goal is that students are lazy and bored to treat their work.
The social affiliation goal is that students feel a sense of efficacy in groups or with their friends. The social approval goal is that students hope to get praise and recognition related to their progress and assignment completion. The social responsibility goal is that students want to get positive feeling in their social roles. The social status goal is that students may excite when they get their desired position. The social concern goal is that students enjoy and like to assist other students.
4. Cognitive components of students’ goals
Table 4 on pp105-106
The cognitive components of students’ goals refer to a range of thinking processes associated with each goal. The mastery goal is that students plan, monitor, assess, and regulate their thinking procedure. The performance goal is that students do not have deep thinking and only care of high marks. The work avoidance goal is that students pay their limited effort and engagement for their learning.
The social affiliation goal is that students think a lot when they work with other students. The social approval goal is that students maximize their efforts for learning because of their teachers and parents’ expectations. The social responsibility goal is that students could strive to learn when they have some social rules in classroom or school. The social status goal is that students study industriously in order to get high status. The social concern goal is that students try to learn well and then they can transfer the knowledge to other students.
1. Regulation of motivation
The regulation of motivation can be described as the activities through which individuals purposefully act to initiate, maintain, or supplement their willingness to start, to provide work toward, or to complete a particular activity or goal. It is achieved by deliberately intervening in, managing, or controlling one of the underlying processes that determine this willingness. Regarding behavior, the regulation of motivation encompasses the thoughts, actions, or behaviors through which students act to influence their choice, effort, or persistence for academic tasks. Regarding strategy, the regulation of motivation uses strategies as a procedure to influence individual’s motivation.
The regulation of motivation can be described from those aspects: as a activity that means students take action to manage and restrict their behavior purposefully, and the aim is to achieve their goals or particulare activities. As a behavior, the regulation of motivation includes thoughts, planning, prediction and reflection which influence students’ effort, choice and emotion. As a strategy, the regulation of motivation could instigate, monitor and direct students’ manner to improve their self-regulation.
The metacognition encomprass two components: regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition. The regulation of cogniton discribes students’ efforts to monitor, control, or adjust their cognitive processing in response to shifting task demands or conditions. The knowledge of cognition includes students’ understanding or stored infromation regarding the thinking and learning process. This aspect of metacognition has been differentiated based on whether the knowledge pertain to the person, to tasks, or to strategies, and into declarative, procedural, and conditional forms of knowledge.
The regulation of cognition is that students’ consciousness to make a plan, choose and change relative strategies, manage and control behaviors when they meet some problems and tasks. If students have high ability of regulation of cognition, they tend to adapt to performance or academic task better than others. The knowledge of cognition is that the knowledge and information about thinking and problem-solving the students learned and gained in their learning lives. The students also need some strategies to apply those knowledge and informatin.
Self-consequating is a prototypical way in which students regulate their motivation is through the use of self-administered or self-provided consequences for their own behaviors. This strategy includes students’ identification and administration of extrinsic reinforcement or punishments for reaching particular goal associated with completing a task.
Self-consequating include three means to influence students’ motivation. Firstly, the concrete rewards is that students provide their rewards when they complete their tasks, such as an ice-cream, a favorite toy. But they will punish themselves if they do not complete the tasks, such as not eat candy this week. Secondly, the behavioral activities is that the students take part in some activities when they finish their tasks, such as go to see the film with friends, take part in the party. Similarly, if they do not finish the tasks, they will punish themselves. Lastly, the verval statements is that students may speak to themselves while working, which inspire their motivation, behavior, and strategies using to complete tasks.
Ⅰ. Martin Dowson& Dennis M. McInerney(2003). What do Students Say about Their Motivational Goals?: Towards a More Complex and Dynamic Perspective on Student Motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology 28 (2003) pp91-113.
Ⅱ. Christopher A. Wolters(2003). Regulation of Motivation: Evaluating an Underemphasized Aspect of Self-regulated Learning. Educational Psychologist, 38(4), pp189-205.