1. Classroom environment affects students’ self-regulation
Some investigations describe that the features of classroom environments can affect students’ self-regulation both positively and negatively. The features include complexity of tasks, types of instructional techniques, methods of student-teacher interaction, teacher’s expectations, instructional support, classroom reward structure, and so on. From those researches, we can get the idea that the teacher, as the leader of the classroom environment, their practices may support or undermine the development of students’ good work habits. So we think that teachers’ interventions play an important role in classroom environment.
Firstly, teachers should give students instruction when they pursuit goals. When students get a task, they will set specific goals, make plans, choose appropriate strategies, and use feedback, etc. At that time, the teachers should attend to students’ goal-setting, feedback use and responses as part of their classroom instruction. They need to give students some support and aims in the process. The instructions come from teachers’ could influence students’ efficacy and performance on their task.
Secondly, teachers should help students have positive motivations, which means the motivation must be addressed at the classroom level, not the individual student. If there are some maladaptive behaviors and motivations stemming from students, teachers could actively suppress and reorient those negative motivations in time and foster students to have productive self-management, which cannot affect the entire class. At the same time, teachers should foster students to manage their behavior and emotion which contribute to their setting up of self-efficacy perceptions.
Thirdly, teachers should supply some learning strategies for students. For example, “reciprocal teaching” is a better method for students. When students learn from teachers how to think about work, to analyze the problems, to use prior knowledge to help themselves, to choose tactics to solve difficulties, they will begin to think and learn just as experts. Sometimes, students cannot study well and get low scores, but the main reason is that they do not know how to learn. If teachers explain and model their thinking in the different tasks and indicate their expectation about students’ performance, it will demystify students and help them to take over their task.
Lastly, teachers and parents need to give students some verbal persuasion which encourages students to set their own learning goals and then work toward mastery. Some rewards could inspire students to have positive attitude to their behavior, self-monitor, evaluation, reflection and goals; meanwhile, it is a good way for students to improve their self-regulation in their learning process.
2. Students’ behaviors influence their self-regulated learning
According to the article, there are three behavioral elements which influence students’ self-regulated learning: self-observation, self-judgment, and self-reactions.
Self-observation refers to students’ responses affect their monitoring of their own performances. Through observation, students can evaluate their practical behavior during the process of achieving a goal; sometimes they could change their plan, use different strategies and cognition for the goal. They could use two behavioral methods for their observation, one is writing reports, and the other one is recording of actions and reactions. For writing reports, students can separate their goal into different phase, such as the intermediate goals and long-term goal. When they finish one phase’s goal, they should write a report to discuss their situation of execution, evaluation of the content, their planning about next phase.
The reports can help students have right reflection about current and future phases. For recording, students can records anything in their own learning process, such as the change of their emotion, problems they meet, strategies they use, prior knowledge they remember, some models and methods from teachers, etc. When students experience recording in their learning procedure, they will be clearly about their behaviors and targets which make them have positive reactive affects, motivation and self-efficacy during their learning.
Self-judgment refers to students’ responses that involve comparing their performance with a standard or goal. Through judgment, students can evaluate their learning process, goal-setting, knowledge and methods. The effects of self-judgment can be examined by goal and social comparative criteria. Students set a goal for their task and they could evaluate their goal in the process. If their judgment about the current goal is satisfied, they will go on to pursuit next goal; If they are not satisfied their current goal, they will reflect and think about some existent problems, then find some methods or seek helping to solve them. The self-judgment helps them to improve their abilities about solving difficult problem. And we can conclude that if students have high self-judgment, they also have high self-regulation. Students’ self-judgment is related to social comparative criteria. In general, students always care about comparative criteria coming from their teachers, parents and peers. In fact, their teachers’ ratings about their tests and behaves in the school can effect students’ self-judgment deeply. So as a teacher, we need to give students more positive evaluation to encourage them to self-judge their behavior, motivation and outcomes which are conductive to their self-efficacy and self-observation.
Self-reactions refer to students’ response to their performances. Students’ self-reactions happen in the process of goal setting, self-efficacy perception, planning and behavioral outcomes. There are three types of self-reactions: behavioral self-reactions, personal self-reactions and environmental self-reactions. Behavioral self-reactions means students seek methods and strategies to optimize their learning process and outcomes, for example, self-determination. Personal self-reactions means students want to enhance their learning process, for example, intermediate goal and long-term goal. Environmental self-reactions mean students try to improve their learning environment, for example, help seeking. Those three types could interact and affect with each other. The behavioral self-reactions could stimulate students to set their goals and use different strategies to help them achieve goals. The personal self-reactions make students have effective self-efficacy and academic outcomes in their learning process. And the environmental self-reactions encourage students to solve difficulties and accomplish their own target.
In brief, the relations of these three behavioral elements are reciprocal. The self-observation could assist students to set realistic and practical performance; the self-judgment could evaluate their ongoing behaviors and have changes sometimes according to their recording and reports; the self-reactions could inspire students acquire knowledge, achieve goals, get academic outcomes and skills. All of the three behavioral elements are important to improve students’ ability of self-regulated learning, and they will interact in students’ learning process.
Ⅰ. Monique Boekaerts & Lyn Corno(2005). Self-regulation in the Classroom: A Perspective on Assessment and Intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 2005, 54(2), pp199-231
Ⅱ. Paul R. Pintrich(2003). A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 2003, Vol.95, No.4, pp667-686
Ⅲ. Barry J. Zimmerman(1989). A social Cognitive View of Self-Regulated Academic Learning. Journal of Education Psychology, 1989, Vol. 81, No.3, pp329-339