Self-assessment is one of important factors in self-regulation. Self-assessment involves comparing one’s own execution process and performance with some criteria to become aware of what has been done to change it if necessary, and to learn from it to perform the task better in the future(Lan, 1998).
From the definition of self-assessment, we can see that criteria are the key element in the process of self-assessment. The assessment criteria should be clear enough for students to understand and interpret, meanwhile, they could be given from the beginning of the learning process in order to students have explicit goals and planning for the task.
In addition, teachers’ interventions also play a significant role in students’ self-assessment procedure. One is that teachers would give students some interventions when they set a goal after receiving assessment criteria. Teachers urge students to interpret the contents of criteria accurately and give some instructions when they meet some problems, which can promise students set an actual and objective goal, and implement their performance effectively. Another one is that teachers’ interventions could be existed throughout the task. According to students’ self-assessment about their behavior, monitoring, and execution, teachers can give their feedbacks; it will increase students’ self-efficacy and help students understand the reasons of their successes and failures.
Rubrics are one of tools self-assessment used. The characteristics of rubrics are that, it is a list of criteria to assess the important target of the task; it is a scale to grade the various levels of achievement; it is a description of every qualitative level. The rubrics are to analyze the final outcome of the activity, but they are also given to students when they begin to work so as to assist them to establish congruent goal. So students are clear about how the final product looks like. Students can assess their work based on the criteria or standards displayed in the rubric, and then grade their performance by themselves.
Except for the positive influence of rubrics in students’ self-assessment and learning, it still has negative influence. As rubrics assess the final products of the task and given to students when they start to work, students cannot regulate their behaviors well during the whole activity. So to some extent, rubrics are not beneficial enough for students’ self-regulation.
Scripts are another type of tool for self-assessment. They are designed to analyze the process of the task, and it follows students’ engagement from the beginning to the end of the task, meanwhile, they also can be used to analyze the final outcome.
Compared with rubrics, scripts have many positive effects. Scripts could enhance to understand the content of the task, manage students’ behavior, monitor their time and effort, activate valid strategies, and correct self-assessment in learning process, which is useful for the construction of students’ self-efficacy. At the same time, the motivation of students is still affected by the scripts. In the assessment procedure, students could change their task value and perception into a profitable direction for their learning, which make them have positive emotion for the task activity. Therefore, we must admit that scripts are effective tool for students’ self-regulation.
1. Cognitive strategies
Cognitive strategies refer to the treatment of specific learning information in different domains. Cognitive strategies can be divided into four areas:
Repetition strategies: effective repetition is a good way to transfer the information learned into the long-term memory. But without understanding of the content cannot gain the meaning from the learning and achieve the goal of memory.
Elaboration strategies: combining new knowledge into the existing cognitive structure to support the deep and effective comprehension of the knowledge learned.
Organizational strategies: displaying the important information and their relations into super-ordinate units so as to memorize them efficiently.
Problem solving strategies: problem solving is a cognitive process; problem can be divided into sub-goals and solved with different means.
2. Metacognitive strategies
Metacognition refers to cognition about cognition; metacognitive process can control, monitor, and regulate learning and cognitive activities. Metacognitive strategies are divided into two sides:
Metacognitive knowledge: That knowledge means students’ understanding and comprehension of their own memory, information, knowledge, and learning mode.
Metacognitive skills: the skills mean the regulation of cognition. It happens during the whole learning process, from planning, selecting strategies, monitoring behavior and time, change some methods and strategies, to checking and evaluating achievements according to criteria.
3. Motivational strategies
If any kinds of cognitive and metacognitive strategies can be applied effectively, it always depends on the motivational conditions of students. For the applying of strategies in self-regulation need students have more time and effect, so motivational strategies are very significant for them. Motivational strategies are divided into three aspects:
Causal attribution and self-efficacy beliefs: how students explain their success and failure will affect their learning motivation and emotion. Meanwhile, the attitude of self-efficacy also impact students to use cognitive and metacognitive strategies in their learning process.
Action control: the discrepancy between motivation and performance can influence students’ activity. But if they can control their action availably, they will focus cognitive activities on assisting arousal of goal-directed action which help them to solve the problems.
Feedback: students would be encouraged to ask for feedback for their task and learning, at the same time, they should make analysis of the feedback, which make them clear about the engagement of current task and how to improve their following learning.
1. Ernesto Panadero, Jesus Alonso Tapia, Juan Antonio Huertas(2012). Rubrics and Self-assessment Scripts Effects on Self-regulation, Learning and Self-efficacy in Secondary Education. Learning and Individual Differences 22(2012) pp806-813
2. Charlotte Dignath, Gerhard Buettner, Hans-Peter Langfeldt (2008). How can Primary School Students Learn Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Most Effectively? A Meta-Analysis on Self-Regulation Training Programmes. Educational Research Review 3 (2008) pp101-129.