1. What is CSCL
Collaborative learning refers to ’a situation in which two or more people learning or attempt to learn something together’ (Dillenbourg, 1999, p1). The collaborative learning is distinguished from cooperative learning is that it indicates ’mutual engagement of participants who are in a coordinated effort to solve the problem together’ (Dillenbourg, Baker, Blaye, & O’Malley, p190), rather than division labor among people, each people is responsible for a part of the problem solving.
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) focuses on ’how technology can facilitate the sharing and creation of knowledge and expertise through peer interaction and group learning processes’ (Resta & Laferriere, p67). CSCL is the situation in which students use computer network to interact with each other in order to enhance the learning environments. The aim of CSCL is to create an environment for students which can support their collabration and interaction in order to improve their learning process and facilitate learning skills.
2. The importance of emotion and motivation regulation in CSCL
The emotion refers to one person’s reaction to something (Videolecture by Järvenoja, 2013). For students, the emotion has a significant effect on their motivation, learning strategies, self-regulation, and achievements in individual learning and collaborative learning (Järvelä, Hurme, & Järvenoja, 2011). The sources, such as personal preferences, academic task, learning situation, interaction, differences in aims and goals between group members, are always the main aspects existed in CSCL situations and have dynamic or static influences for collaborative learning (Videolecture by Järvenoja, 2013). The emotion regulation is the ability that students can adapt to challenging condition by means of keeping down inappropriate behavior and selecting behaviors that are perceived as socially expected (Videolecture by Kurki, 2013).
The motivation refers to the beliefs or attitude that can direct, maintain, or hinder the person’s behaviors in the whole process of activity. For students, the motivation can impact their goal setting, plan making, strategies choosing, behavior monitoring, challenges solving, and so on. The motivation regulation means the individual can act purposefully to originate and insist her/his efforts and behaviors to start, work, and accomplish the activity and goal (Järvelä, Hurme, & Järvenoja, 2011). The motivation regulation is one of key points to guarantee collaborative learning or computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL).
Why emotion and motivation regulation in CSCL are very important (Järvelä, Hurme, & Järvenoja, 2011; Videolecture by Järvenoja, 2013; Videolecture by Kurki, 2013)?
A. It helps group members’ self-regulation and co-regulation in the collaborative learning or CSCL settings.
B. It assists group members to be interested in the task and focus their attentions on the activity.
C. It prompts group members to adapt to working in the social learning settings so that they can share knowledge and insist coordinated activities.
D. It encourages group members to use technological tools to solve the problems and challenges they face in the learning process.
E. It stimulates group members to select appropriate strategies when they meet difficulties, e.g. help seeking.
F. It prompts to negotiate and argument between group members when they have conflicts in the different phases of learning process.
G. It is in favor of developing group members’ learning skills in collaborative learning environments.
3. How to support emotion and motivation regulation in CSCL settings
There are some methods for teacher to support students’ emotion and motivation regulation in CSCL settings (Järvelä, Hurme, & Järvenoja, 2011; Videolecture by Järvenoja, 2013; Videolecture by Kurki, 2013).
At first, the teacher should provide students the related cognitive knowledge and strategies about how to regulate emotion and motivation in the learning process, which is helpful for students to realize the adaptive motivation and emotion regulation.
Then, the teacher should design some learning situations, including individual learning, collaborative learning, and CSCL, to offer opportunities for students to practice the strategies they have learned. Meanwhile, the teacher can model the application of strategies in specific situation, and give effective instruction in the process of implementation.
Thirdly, the teacher should scaffold students’ emotion and motivation regulation when they are in collaborative learning or CSCL settings, which is possible for students to get awareness and consciousness of thinking when they are working.
Fourthly, the teacher should offer some technological tools to make students present their emotional and motivational experiences visible in order to regulate group’s working process and improve their learning skills. In addition, the technological tools can enhance students’ intrinsic interests for the collaborative learning.
At last, the teacher should give individual student’s feedback about her/his emotion and motivation regulation in the collaborative learning or CSCL process, which assists students to be aware of self-reflection and selecting appropriate strategies to promote their regulation about emotion and motivation in order to achieve the shared goal and develop individual learning skills.
Dillenbourg, P (1999). What do you mean by collaborative learning?. In P. Dillenbourg (Ed) Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. (pp. 1-19). Oxford: Elsevier.
Dillenbourg, P., Baker, M., Blaye, A., & O’Malley, C. (1996). The evolution of research on collaborative learning. In E. Spada & P. Reiman (Eds) Learning in Humans and Machine: Towards an interdisciplinary learning science. (pp. 189-211). Oxford: Elsevier.
Järvelä, S., Hurme, T.-R., & Järvenoja, H. (2011). Self-regulation and motivation in computer supported collaborative learning environments. In S. Ludvigsen, A. Lund, I. Rasmussen, & R. Säljö (Eds.), Learning Across Sites. New tools, infrastructures and practices (pp.330-345). Oxford: Routledge.
Resta Paul & Laferriere Therese (2007). Technology in support of collaborative learning. Educational Psychology Review 19, 65-83.
Videolecture by Järvenoja Hanna: Regulating motivation and emotions in collaborative learning situations
Videolecture by Kurki Kristiina: Young children’s emotion regulation in socio-emotionally challenging learning situations